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Economics of the public sector / Joseph E. Stiglitz.

By: Stiglitz, Joseph E.
Material type: TextTextPublisher: New York : W. W. Norton, c2000Edition: 3rd ed.Description: xxiii, 823 p. : ill. ; 27 cm.ISBN: 0393966518; 9780393966510.Subject(s): Finance, Public -- United States | Fiscal policy -- United StatesDDC classification: 336.73 Online resources: WorldCat details | E-book Fulltext
Contents:
Table of contents 1 The Public Sector in a Mixed Economy 3 -- The Economic Role of Government 4 -- What or Who is the Government? 12 -- Thinking Like a Public Sector Economist 14 -- Disagreements Among Economists 20 -- 2 The Public Sector in the United States 26 -- Types of Government Activity 27 -- Gauging the Size of the Public Sector 39 -- Government Revenues 43 -- Deficit Financing 47 -- Playing Tricks With the Data on Government Activities 47 -- Part 2 Fundamentals of Welfare Economics 53 -- 3 Market Efficiency 55 -- The Invisible Hand of Competitive Markets 55 -- Welfare Economics and Pareto Efficiency 57 -- Analyzing Economic Efficiency 63 -- 4 Market Failure 76 -- Property Rights and Contract Enforcement 77 -- Market Failures and the Role of Government 77 -- Redistribution and Merit Goods 85 -- Two Perspectives on the Role of Government 88 -- 5 Efficiency and Equity 93 -- Efficiency and Distribution Trade-Offs 94 -- Analyzing Social Choices 94 -- Social Choices in Practice 104 -- Three Approaches to Social Choices 114 -- Appendix Alternative Measures of Inequality 120 -- The Lorenz Curve 120 -- The Dalton-Atkinson Measure 122 -- Part 3 Public Expenditure Theory 125 -- 6 Public Goods and Publicly Provided Private Goods 127 -- Public Goods 128 -- Publicly Provided Private Goods 136 -- Efficiency Conditions for Public Goods 141 -- Efficient Government as a Public Good 149 -- Appendix A The Leftover Curve 152 -- Appendix B Measuring the Welfare Cost of user Fees 154 -- 7 Public Choice 156 -- Public Mechanisms for Allocating Resources 157 -- Alternatives for Determining Public Goods Expenditures 174 -- Politics and Economics 177 -- Appendix New Preference-Revelation Mechanisms 185 -- 8 Public Production and Bureaucracy 189 -- Natural Monopoly: Public Production of Private Goods 190 -- Comparison of Efficiency in the Public and Private Sectors 198 -- Sources of Inefficiency in the Public Sector 200 -- Corporatization 206 -- A Growing Consensus on Government's Role in Production 208 -- 9 Externalities and the Environment 214 -- The Problem of Externalities 215 -- Private Solutions to Externalities 217 -- Public Sector Solutions to Externalities 223 -- Protecting the Environment: the Role of Government in Practice 234 -- Part 4 Expenditure Programs 245 -- 10 The Analysis of Expenditure Policy 247 -- Need for Program 248 -- Market Failures 249 -- Alternative Forms of Government Intervention 250 -- The Importance of Particular Design Features 252 -- Private Sector Responses to Government Programs 253 -- Efficiency Consequences 254 -- Distributional Consequences 258 -- Equity-Efficiency Trade-Offs 264 -- Public Policy Objectives 266 -- Political Process 267 -- 11 Cost-Benefit Analysis 271 -- Private Cost-Benefit Analysis 272 -- Social Cost-Benefit Analysis 274 -- Consumer Surplus and the Decision to Undertake a Project 275 -- Measuring Non-Monetized Costs and Benefits 278 -- Shadow Prices and Market Prices 283 -- Discount Rate for Social Cost-Benefit Analysis 284 -- The Evaluation of Risk 289 -- Distributional Considerations 292 -- Cost Effectiveness 293 -- 12 Health Care 300 -- The Health Care System in the United States 304 -- Rationale For a Role of Government in the Health Care Sector 308 -- Reforming Health Care 322 -- 13 Defense and Technology 331 -- Defense Expenditures 333 -- Increasing the Efficiency of the Defense Department 338 -- Defense Conversion 341 -- Technology 342 -- 14 Social Insurance 353 -- The Social Security System 356 -- Social Security, Private Insurance, and Market Failures 358 -- Should Social Security be Reformed? 363 -- Reforming Social Security 374 -- 15 Welfare Programs and the Redistribution of Income 385 -- A Brief Description of Major U.S. Welfare Programs 386 -- Rationale for Government Welfare Programs 391 -- Analytic Issues 393 -- Welfare Reform: Integration of Programs 406 -- The Welfare Reform Bill of 1996 408 -- 16 Education 420 -- The Structure of Education in the United States 423 -- Why is Education Publicly Provided and Publicly Financed? 426 -- Issues and Controversies in Educational Policy 428 -- Aid to Higher Education 441 -- Appendix How Should Public Educational Funds be Allocated? 446 -- Part 5 Taxation: Theory 449 -- 17 Introduction to Taxation 451 -- The Five Desirable Characteristics of any Tax System 456 -- General Framework for Choosing Among Tax Systems 476 -- 18 Tax Incidence 482 -- Tax Incidence in Competitive Markets 484 -- Tax Incidence of Environments Without Perfect Competition 498 -- Equivalent Taxes 502 -- Other Factors Affecting Tax Incidence 505 -- Incidence of Taxes in the United States 510 -- Appendix Comparison of the Effects of an Ad Valorem and Specific Commodity Tax on a Monopolist 515 -- 19 Taxation and Economic Efficiency 518 -- Effect of Taxes Borne by Consumers 519 -- Quantifying the Distortions 521 -- Effects of Taxes Borne by Producers 529 -- Taxation of Savings 532 -- Taxation of Labor Income 535 -- Measuring the Effects of Taxes on Labor Supplied 541 -- 20 Optimal Taxation 550 -- Two Fallacies of Optimal Taxation 551 -- Optimal and Pareto Efficient Taxation 552 -- Differential Taxation 562 -- Taxes on Producers 567 -- Appendix A Deriving Ramsey Taxes on Commodities 572 -- Appendix B Derivation of Ramsey Formula for Linear Demand Schedule 574 -- 21 Taxation of Capital 577 -- Should Capital be Taxed? 579 -- Effects on Savings and Investment 582 -- Impact on Risk Taking 588 -- Measuring Changes in Asset Values 592 -- Part 6 Taxation in the United States 605 -- 22 The Personal Income Tax 607 -- Outline of the U.S. Income Tax 608 -- Principles Behind the U.S. Income Tax 616 -- Practical Problems in Implementing an Income Tax System 622 -- Special Treatment of Capital Income 635 -- 23 The Corporation Income Tax 645 -- The Basic Features of the Corporation Income Tax 647 -- The Incidence of the Corporation Income Tax and its Effect on Efficiency 648 -- Depreciation 659 -- Combined Effects of Individual and Corporate Income Tax 661 -- The Corporation Tax as Economic Policy 670 -- Taxation of Multinationals 672 -- Should There be a Corporation Income Tax? 673 -- 24 A Student's Guide to Tax Avoidance 678 -- Principles of Tax Avoidance 679 -- Tax Shelters 684 -- Tax Reform and Tax Avoidance 687 -- Equity, Efficiency, and Tax Reform 690 -- 25 Reform of the Tax System 693 -- Fairness 695 -- Efficiency 698 -- Simplifying the Tax Code and Reducing Administrative Costs 704 -- Transition Issues and the Politics of Tax Reform 711 -- Tax Reforms for the Twenty-First Century 714 -- Part 7 Further Issues 725 -- 26 Fiscal Federalism 727 -- The Division of Responsibilities 728 -- Principles of Fiscal Federalism 732 -- Production Versus Finance 742 -- 27 State and Local Taxes and Expenditures 754 -- Tax Incidence Applied to Local Public Finance 755 -- Capitalization 758 -- Public Choice at the Local Level 764 -- Problems of Multi-Jurisdictional Taxation 768 -- 28 Deficit Finance 772 -- The U.S. Deficit Problem Since the 1980s 773 -- Consequences of Government Deficits 782 -- Improving the Budgetary Process 787 -- The Long-Term Problem: Entitlements and the Aged 789.
Summary: This work has been brought up-to-date to reflect major tax changes that have occured since the publication of the second edition. A theoretical framework for the basis of taxation is introduced to the student before surveys of American and other tax systems are explained.
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Includes bibliographical references (p. 795-803) and index.

Table of contents 1 The Public Sector in a Mixed Economy 3 --
The Economic Role of Government 4 --
What or Who is the Government? 12 --
Thinking Like a Public Sector Economist 14 --
Disagreements Among Economists 20 --
2 The Public Sector in the United States 26 --
Types of Government Activity 27 --
Gauging the Size of the Public Sector 39 --
Government Revenues 43 --
Deficit Financing 47 --
Playing Tricks With the Data on Government Activities 47 --
Part 2 Fundamentals of Welfare Economics 53 --
3 Market Efficiency 55 --
The Invisible Hand of Competitive Markets 55 --
Welfare Economics and Pareto Efficiency 57 --
Analyzing Economic Efficiency 63 --
4 Market Failure 76 --
Property Rights and Contract Enforcement 77 --
Market Failures and the Role of Government 77 --
Redistribution and Merit Goods 85 --
Two Perspectives on the Role of Government 88 --
5 Efficiency and Equity 93 --
Efficiency and Distribution Trade-Offs 94 --
Analyzing Social Choices 94 --
Social Choices in Practice 104 --
Three Approaches to Social Choices 114 --
Appendix Alternative Measures of Inequality 120 --
The Lorenz Curve 120 --
The Dalton-Atkinson Measure 122 --
Part 3 Public Expenditure Theory 125 --
6 Public Goods and Publicly Provided Private Goods 127 --
Public Goods 128 --
Publicly Provided Private Goods 136 --
Efficiency Conditions for Public Goods 141 --
Efficient Government as a Public Good 149 --
Appendix A The Leftover Curve 152 --
Appendix B Measuring the Welfare Cost of user Fees 154 --
7 Public Choice 156 --
Public Mechanisms for Allocating Resources 157 --
Alternatives for Determining Public Goods Expenditures 174 --
Politics and Economics 177 --
Appendix New Preference-Revelation Mechanisms 185 --
8 Public Production and Bureaucracy 189 --
Natural Monopoly: Public Production of Private Goods 190 --
Comparison of Efficiency in the Public and Private Sectors 198 --
Sources of Inefficiency in the Public Sector 200 --
Corporatization 206 --
A Growing Consensus on Government's Role in Production 208 --
9 Externalities and the Environment 214 --
The Problem of Externalities 215 --
Private Solutions to Externalities 217 --
Public Sector Solutions to Externalities 223 --
Protecting the Environment: the Role of Government in Practice 234 --
Part 4 Expenditure Programs 245 --
10 The Analysis of Expenditure Policy 247 --
Need for Program 248 --
Market Failures 249 --
Alternative Forms of Government Intervention 250 --
The Importance of Particular Design Features 252 --
Private Sector Responses to Government Programs 253 --
Efficiency Consequences 254 --
Distributional Consequences 258 --
Equity-Efficiency Trade-Offs 264 --
Public Policy Objectives 266 --
Political Process 267 --
11 Cost-Benefit Analysis 271 --
Private Cost-Benefit Analysis 272 --
Social Cost-Benefit Analysis 274 --
Consumer Surplus and the Decision to Undertake a Project 275 --
Measuring Non-Monetized Costs and Benefits 278 --
Shadow Prices and Market Prices 283 --
Discount Rate for Social Cost-Benefit Analysis 284 --
The Evaluation of Risk 289 --
Distributional Considerations 292 --
Cost Effectiveness 293 --
12 Health Care 300 --
The Health Care System in the United States 304 --
Rationale For a Role of Government in the Health Care Sector 308 --
Reforming Health Care 322 --
13 Defense and Technology 331 --
Defense Expenditures 333 --
Increasing the Efficiency of the Defense Department 338 --
Defense Conversion 341 --
Technology 342 --
14 Social Insurance 353 --
The Social Security System 356 --
Social Security, Private Insurance, and Market Failures 358 --
Should Social Security be Reformed? 363 --
Reforming Social Security 374 --
15 Welfare Programs and the Redistribution of Income 385 --
A Brief Description of Major U.S. Welfare Programs 386 --
Rationale for Government Welfare Programs 391 --
Analytic Issues 393 --
Welfare Reform: Integration of Programs 406 --
The Welfare Reform Bill of 1996 408 --
16 Education 420 --
The Structure of Education in the United States 423 --
Why is Education Publicly Provided and Publicly Financed? 426 --
Issues and Controversies in Educational Policy 428 --
Aid to Higher Education 441 --
Appendix How Should Public Educational Funds be Allocated? 446 --
Part 5 Taxation: Theory 449 --
17 Introduction to Taxation 451 --
The Five Desirable Characteristics of any Tax System 456 --
General Framework for Choosing Among Tax Systems 476 --
18 Tax Incidence 482 --
Tax Incidence in Competitive Markets 484 --
Tax Incidence of Environments Without Perfect Competition 498 --
Equivalent Taxes 502 --
Other Factors Affecting Tax Incidence 505 --
Incidence of Taxes in the United States 510 --
Appendix Comparison of the Effects of an Ad Valorem and Specific Commodity Tax on a Monopolist 515 --
19 Taxation and Economic Efficiency 518 --
Effect of Taxes Borne by Consumers 519 --
Quantifying the Distortions 521 --
Effects of Taxes Borne by Producers 529 --
Taxation of Savings 532 --
Taxation of Labor Income 535 --
Measuring the Effects of Taxes on Labor Supplied 541 --
20 Optimal Taxation 550 --
Two Fallacies of Optimal Taxation 551 --
Optimal and Pareto Efficient Taxation 552 --
Differential Taxation 562 --
Taxes on Producers 567 --
Appendix A Deriving Ramsey Taxes on Commodities 572 --
Appendix B Derivation of Ramsey Formula for Linear Demand Schedule 574 --
21 Taxation of Capital 577 --
Should Capital be Taxed? 579 --
Effects on Savings and Investment 582 --
Impact on Risk Taking 588 --
Measuring Changes in Asset Values 592 --
Part 6 Taxation in the United States 605 --
22 The Personal Income Tax 607 --
Outline of the U.S. Income Tax 608 --
Principles Behind the U.S. Income Tax 616 --
Practical Problems in Implementing an Income Tax System 622 --
Special Treatment of Capital Income 635 --
23 The Corporation Income Tax 645 --
The Basic Features of the Corporation Income Tax 647 --
The Incidence of the Corporation Income Tax and its Effect on Efficiency 648 --
Depreciation 659 --
Combined Effects of Individual and Corporate Income Tax 661 --
The Corporation Tax as Economic Policy 670 --
Taxation of Multinationals 672 --
Should There be a Corporation Income Tax? 673 --
24 A Student's Guide to Tax Avoidance 678 --
Principles of Tax Avoidance 679 --
Tax Shelters 684 --
Tax Reform and Tax Avoidance 687 --
Equity, Efficiency, and Tax Reform 690 --
25 Reform of the Tax System 693 --
Fairness 695 --
Efficiency 698 --
Simplifying the Tax Code and Reducing Administrative Costs 704 --
Transition Issues and the Politics of Tax Reform 711 --
Tax Reforms for the Twenty-First Century 714 --
Part 7 Further Issues 725 --
26 Fiscal Federalism 727 --
The Division of Responsibilities 728 --
Principles of Fiscal Federalism 732 --
Production Versus Finance 742 --
27 State and Local Taxes and Expenditures 754 --
Tax Incidence Applied to Local Public Finance 755 --
Capitalization 758 --
Public Choice at the Local Level 764 --
Problems of Multi-Jurisdictional Taxation 768 --
28 Deficit Finance 772 --
The U.S. Deficit Problem Since the 1980s 773 --
Consequences of Government Deficits 782 --
Improving the Budgetary Process 787 --
The Long-Term Problem: Entitlements and the Aged 789.

This work has been brought up-to-date to reflect major tax changes that have occured since the publication of the second edition. A theoretical framework for the basis of taxation is introduced to the student before surveys of American and other tax systems are explained.

Economics

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